September 12, 2016

Soapy Smith's gamblers travel kit?

(Courtesy of Cam Cogsdill)
(Click image to enlarge)

oapy Smith's gamblers kit?
From the Orleans Club, 1892?

Cam Cogsdill sent me some nice photographs of a gamblers travel kit he believes belonged to Soapy Smith. His email is as follows.
I own a gamblers set that used to belong to Soapy. I have enclosed pictures for your review as I thought you may be interested:

The box is marked on the top:

J.R. Smith

Set Includes:
79 Ivory ioker chips
Card cheater sleeve clip
Engraved Elgin gold pocket watch
Case key
The two revolvers are as follows: Boston Bulldog 1887 – 1899 Defender, 2 1/4″ octagon or round barrel, half-fluted cylinder, mostly with bird’s head grips, 1875 – 1888

Cam Cogsdill

Top level/shelf portion
Ivory chips, watch card hold-out, dice, key
(Courtesy of Cam Cogsdill)
(Click image to enlarge)

I don't know Cam, but I thought his item was intriguing enough to share. I gave him a call and we had a very pleasant conversation. He purchased the item from a family in Virginia, whom he says did not mention "Soapy," that they apparently did not know the name. Cam did a little research and found me. I did express my concerns about the authenticity, as fakery in the old west collecting field has always been a huge problem.

Personally, I always question the authenticity of items like this. It could possibly be real, but I can't say for certain. I do not believe that Soapy would have had this box manufactured for himself, especially considering he was only in Creede, Colorado for around four months. He operated the Tivoli Club in Denver for nearly nine years and thus far nothing like this, engraved with his name and that of his saloon, has surfaced within the family collections, that I know of. However, it is possible that a friend or someone very appreciative of Soapy, could have had this gambler's box personalized as a "thank you" gift.  

He states that he is not interested in selling this item, however, I will be happy to pass along any messages and contact information from those who wish to talk to him.

Top level close-up
Ivory chips, watch card hold-out, dice, key
(Courtesy of Cam Cogsdill)

(Click image to enlarge)


Bottom level/shelf portion
Two pistols
(Courtesy of Cam Cogsdill)

(Click image to enlarge)


The insides

(Courtesy of Cam Cogsdill)

(Click image to enlarge)


"When Soapy was a small child his father would go into Newnan every Saturday and get drunk, and would take Soapy to drive him home. It would make Soapy so mad he would dump his father (who had passed out) in the back of the wagon and whip the mules to go lickedy-split over the rutted road so his father’s head would whack with every bump…."
—Ellen P. Rafeedie


1609: English explorer Henry Hudson sails down what is now known as the Hudson River.
1814: The Battle of North Point is fought in Maryland (War of 1812).
1864: A government supply train of 205 wagons departs Fort Scott, Kansas for Fort Gibson in Indian Territory.
1866: "The Black Crook," known to be the first American burlesque show, opens in New York City.
1873: The first typewriter is sold to the public.
1874: The Battle of Buffalo Waller takes place in Hemphill County, Texas. While delivering dispatches, Billy Dixon, Amos Chapman, and four others, are attacked by nearly 100 Kiowa and Comanche Indians. The men take refuge in a hollow in the ground created by rolling buffalo. They are trapped for three days later suffering one casualty before the military rescues them.
1878: Patent litigation involving the Bell Telephone Company against Western Union Telegraph Company and Elisha Gray begins.
1882: The Tombstone, Arizona Epitaph reports that Johnny Ringo is drunk in Galeyville.

September 11, 2016

The Layman-Odem Revolver from Jeff Smith's Parlor

The Layman-Odem revolver and letter
photo by George Layman
(Click image to enlarge)

he Layman-Odem revolver

Named after owners George Layman and Albert Odem, this artifact was introduced to me by owner George Layman via Larry Zeug, an old friend.

The revolver is a nickled Harrington and Richardson Young America Bulldog. A more complete history of this model can be found at the NRA Museum. Mr. Layman claims the letter and revolver are authentic. This post is not meant to be an authentication or a judgement call, but rather am merely reporting on an interesting story and claim. The letter that comes with the pistol reads as follows.  

This Young America revolver was given to my uncle in 1935 by Willie Neuille. Mr. Neuille got the revolver from a Mr. J. Tanner who owned a hardware store near Skagway and found the gun hanging on a nail behind the bar in the old Jeff Smith’s Parlor saloon around 1911. I owned it ever since my uncle gave it to me during the war.

Albert Odom

The Layman-Odem revolver and letter
photo by George Layman
(Click image to enlarge)

The letter itself is fascinating in itself, including the mention of "J. Tanner," which is most likely vigilante Josias Martin Tanner, who witnessed Soapy Smith's murder on Juneau Wharf on July 8, 1898? The following day he is made a temporary deputy U.S. marshal by Judge Sehlbrede, until the U.S. Marshal agrees and officially swears him in. Tanner did indeed operate a hardware store in Skagway, where it has been reported numerous times that he sold old guns and artifacts that he claimed "once belonged to Soapy." The fact that this revolver came from Tanner may strengthen or weaken the authenticity of the claim that it was "found ... hanging on a nail behind the bar in the old Jeff Smith’s Parlor saloon."

Another question arises with the 1911 date. After Soapy Smith's demise in July 1898, his partners in the saloon business, John and Frank Clancy, took over the saloon until 1899. Until 1900 it was the Sans Souci Restaurant and Oyster Parlor. In the Fall of 1900 the city of Skagway purchased the building to house the fire department's Hook and Ladder Company. The insides of the building were gutted, including the front bar. Martin Itjen purchased the building in 1935 and made it into a museum. "Around 1911," when the revolver was found, the city fire department had already owned the gutted building for a decade. If this story is authentic then there is some important information missing. 

"The class of people who want to get something for nothing are no match for those who give nothing for something. "
The Daily Standard, August 2, 1882


1609: Explorer Henry Hudson sails into what would later be named New York harbor and discovers Manhattan Island and the Hudson River.
1776: A Peace Conference is held between British General Howe and three representatives of the Continental Congress, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge. The conference fails to reach an accord and the war for independence continues for seven more years.
1777: American forces under General George Washington, carrying the “stars and stripes” (American flag) into battle for the first time, are forced to retreat at the Battle of Brandywine Creek.
1786: The Convention of Annapolis opens with the aim of revising the articles of the Confederation.
1789: Alexander Hamilton is appointed by President George Washington as the first secretary of the treasury.
1814: The U.S. fleet defeats the British Navy in the Battle of Lake Champlain, Vermont during the War of 1812.
1842: 1,400 Mexican troops capture San Antonio, Texas. They retreat, with prisoners.
1857: Indians, incited by Mormon Elder John Lee, kill 120 Arkansas settlers bound for California, in the Mountain Meadows Massacre, Utah Territory. The Mormons persuaded the emigrants that they could freely pass unharmed if they surrendered their arms. The Indians murdered all but 18 children. Twenty years later, on March 3, 1877, Lee would be executed for his part in the murders.
1875: The first comic strip to appear in a newspaper is "Professor Tidwissel's Burglar Alarm," featured in the New York Daily Graphic.
1877: The first comic-character timepiece is patented by the Waterbury watch Company.
1878: Outlaw Billy the Kid spends the night at John Chisum's camp, New Mexico Territory.
1883: The mail chute is patented by James Cutler. The device is first utilized in the Elwood Building in Rochester, New York.
1885: Apache Indian Chief Geronimo, and a small band of Indians, shoot a man cutting poles, murder another in ambush, and murder a teen herding cattle, kidnapping his 11-year-old brother.
1897: A ten-week coal workers strike in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio comes to an end. The workers win an eight-hour workday, semi-monthly pay, and company stores are shut down.
1904: The U.S. battleship Connecticut is launched in New York.
1910: The first commercially successful electric bus line opens in Hollywood, California.

August 5, 2016

"To my old friend Soapy Smith"

Close-up of the note
courtesy of Wayne Selmer
(Click image to enlarge)

o my old friend Soapy Smith"

Friend, Wayne Selmer sent me the following photograph regarding a note and some flowers placed on Soapy Smith's grave. The photo is part of a scrapbook in his possession which dates back to 1940. The note reads,

"To my old friend Soapy Smith
From Muligan Gulch Bill
Butte Mont [Montana]"

Soapy indeed had a very loyal set of friends and admirers, at least one refusing to say anything bad about him in an interview 16 years after Soapy's demise (1914). Could this be an old friend, or one time partner, associate, gang member of Soapy's? It is not an impossibility. If "Bill" was between 20-30 years old in 1898, he would be between 62-72 in 1940.

Over the decades after Soapy's death numerous people sent money for the upkeep of the grave. It is very possible that a "Muligan Gulch Bill" did send money to grave caretaker Martin Itjen to place flowers on the grave, and Itjen made the wooden "note" capitalizing on the kind act.

Martin Itjen, the owner and operator of the Jeff Smith's Parlor Museum and primary caretaker of Soapy's grave, is known for such theatrics and the 1940 date aligns with the height of Itjen's business. Still, the sincere sending of flowers may very well be real.

One question remains... Who is "Muligan Gulch Bill?"

The photograph
courtesy of Wayne Selmer
(Click image to enlarge)

"The most infamous of his unique schemes was the prize package soap sell in which he put large-denomination bills inside the wrappers of some cakes of soap and auctioned off the packages for $1 each, then for more as the number of cakes diminished. Only Jeff’s men, who seeded every crowd, ever won the larger bills. From this swindle came the sobriquet “Soapy” by which he came to be known throughout the American West."
Alias Soapy Smith, Introduction.


1833: The city of Chicago, Illinois is incorporated.
1859: The 6th Infantry leads two officers and 50 enlisted against 200 Mojave Indians near Fort Mojave, New Mexico Territory. Three soldiers are wounded and about 23 Indians killed, with many wounded and captured.
1861: The federal government levies its first income tax. The tax is 3% of all incomes over $800. The wartime measure is rescinded in 1872.
1863: Sioux Indians kill 59 Pawnee Indians in Massacre Canyon, Nebraska Territory.
1864: Union forces led by Admiral David Farragut, move into Mobile Bay, Alabama during the Civil War, 1884: The cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty is laid on Bedloe's Island in New York Harbor.
1889: “The most notoriously corrupt and decrepit municipal organization in the West is that in Denver.” (Rocky Mountain News, August 5, 1889). Bad man Soapy Smith controls the criminal underworld there.

July 24, 2016

Commorative Soapy Smith and Skagway rifle

Soapy Smith and the shootout on Juneau Wharf
predominantly engraved
(Click image to enlarge)


Built on a Henry Big Boy .44 Magnum, the Skagway Heritage Rifle is fully-functional and is 24 karat gold-plated! Henry is one of the most trusted firearm manufacturers in the country, and American Legacy Firearms guarantees that each rifle is built to last. Only 10 will be available in the edition! Each engraving is specific to Skagway’s history.

The artwork shows a bust of Soapy and a scene of the shootout on Juneau Wharf, using the painting by artist Andy Thomas, whom I am proud to have assisted in the historical information. It's a shame it wasn't done on the Winchester Model 1892 rifle.

My cousin, Jay Douglas Hartzell, ordered one. I'm so jealous!

Price: $2,495.00

For more information and photographs go to American Legacy Firearms.

A favorite saying of his was, “Do unto others what they’d like to do to you, but do it first.”
Alias Soapy Smith, Introduction.


1847: Mormon leader Brigham Young and his followers arrive in the valley of the Great Salt Lake (Utah).
1847: Richard M. Hoe patents the rotary-type printing press.
1849: Georgetown University in Washington, DC, presents its first Doctor of Music Degree to Henry Dielman.
1858: the first weekly mail to Santa Fe, New Mexico Territory arrives from the east.
1865: Indians led by Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Young Man Afraid, and Roman Nose, camp near Fort Casper (Wyoming) to plan their next battle.
1866: Tennessee is the first state readmitted to the Union after the Civil War.
1869: William F. Cody is “discovered” at Fort McPhearson, Nebraska by the novelist, Ned Buntline.
1886: Calvin James hangs at Fort Smith, Arkansas for the August 1, 1885 murder of Tony Love, a partner in illegal liquor sales in the Chickasaw Nation.
1890: Soap Gang members John “Reverend” Bowers and others are arrested in Denver, Colorado for operating a mock auction house, designed to sell fake gold watches to unsuspecting victims.
1895: Construction begins at Fort Constantine Yukon by the North West Mounted Police at junction of Forty-mile Creek and Yukon River. It is due to the growing number of whites and gold miners in the area, which will be home to the largest gold rush in history. This rush will draw bad man Soapy Smith north, setting up operation on the American side, at Skagway, Alaska.
1897: Black soldiers of the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps set out on a 40-day expedition on bicycles, from Missoula, Montana to St. Louis, Missouri to demonstrate the unique means of military transportation.
1898: One-time Soap Gang member, Jeff Dunbar is shot and killed in a saloon by a bartender, Jim Davis, in Dixon, Wyoming.
1899: outlaw Sam Ketchum, brother of Thomas “Black Jack” Ketchum dies from shock due to an arm amputation in the Santa Fe, New Mexico prison. Sam was involved in the robbery of three Santa Fe Railroad trains near Folsom, New Mexico, with his brother’s gang. Sam was wounded by a posse on July 12, 1899, but nor before killing Sheriff Edward Farr and Deputy W. H. Love. Lawman Tom Smith was also killed by one of the outlaws. Sam was shot in the shoulder, but managed to escape. He hid at a ranch owned by Henry Lambert near Ute Park. Gangrene set in and Lambert was forced to amputate Sam’s arm. A few days later, Ketchum was found and taken to prison, where he died within two weeks.

June 18, 2016

Soapy Smith in Skagway, Alaska, May 1, 1898.

May 1, 1898, Skagway, Alaska
The Ballad of Soapy Smith

Seattle, Washington
(Click image to enlarge)

y a common impulse the people turned toward the Hon. Jefferson R. Smith, more widely known as "Soapy," and made him the director-general of the event."

A reporter with the initials J. C. C.  wrote the article Spring in the Far North, dated May 3, 1898, and published in the Morning Oregonian on May 10, 1898. Following is the paragraph in regards to the May 1, 1898 parade in Skagway.

    Skagway swathed herself in tri-colored bunting last Sunday, and made the eagle scream. No sooner did she hear that our ships were blockading Havana than she decided to ratify the action of our government in ordering war against Spain and in a dozen hours she arranged and carried to its completion a demonstration that no town of 10 times her dimensions and a thousand times her age could exceed in patriotic fervor. For the nonce she buried internal dissension, raised social distinctions, and made a unit of herself in honor of the flag. By a common impulse the people turned toward the Hon. Jefferson R. Smith, more widely known as "Soapy," and made him the director-general of the event. Worthily did he meet the occasion. His military company headed a procession of citizens that paraded the principal streets and saluted Old Glory at the government offices, and an outdoor mass meeting concluded the exercises. Fully 3000 people listened to addresses by Dr. A. B. Hornsby, Walter Church, Mr. Wilcoxson, Mr. Kellar, and the indefatigable "Soapy" himself. The enthusiasm was great throughout the entire proceedings. Butcher Weyler was burned in effigy, and patriotic bonfires blazed on almost every street.

Believed to be Skagway May 1, 1898
Fifth Avenue, in front of city hall (on right)
Note: Soapy grey horse in foreground,
flags and signs.
Author's collection
(Click image to enlarge)

Portion of photograph taken on May 1, 1898
Note the two signs. Are these the same
signs shown in the other larger photograph.

Paper ribbon handed out to people on May 1, 1898.
"Skagway Alaska May 1st 1898."
Soapy wrote on this particular one
and sent it to his wife in St. Louis.
Author's collection
(Click image to enlarge)

At least one author/historian has attempted to play down Soapy's involvement, planning, and speaking role during the May 1st celebration, implying that the stories were mostly myths and legends added to over the passing decades. The newspaper clipping above is one of several witnessed accounts written and published days after the event. Unless all of them got together and agreed on the telling of their stories, there can be little doubt that [1] this event took place on Decoration Day (May 1, 1898). [2] Soapy Smith, at the very least had a big hand in planning the celebration. [3] That Soapy did indeed speak on the speakers platform along with the noted speakers of the town.

May 31, 2016, April 1, 2010.

Decoration Day (May 1, 1898): pages 500-502.

"This boy will be a millionaire; there’s only one Jeff."
— Edwin B. Smith
(speaking of Soapy)


1621: The first duel in America takes place in the Plymouth Colony of Massachusetts. 
1778: Britain evacuates Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the American Revolution.
1812: The War of 1812 starts as the U.S. declares war against Great Britain. The conflict is blamed on trade restrictions.
1858: Con man William B. “Lucky Bill” Thornton is hanged by vigilantes for the murder of Henry Gordier in Carson County, Nevada.
1861: The first U.S. fly-casting tournament is held in Utica, New York.
1864: Cheyenne and Arapahos Indians are believed to have massacred a family, 25 miles west of Denver, Colorado Territory.
1873: Susan B. Anthony is fined $100 for attempting to vote during the presidential election.
1878: During the Lincoln County War, New Mexico Territory, Alexander McSween and his men head for the hills of San Patrico, just missing Sheriff Peppin and U.S. soldiers who are trying to catch him.
1879: Arizona's first ice plant opens in Phoenix, Arizona Territory.
1880: John Sutter, on whose property gold was found in California in 1848, dies penniless at the age of 77 in Pennsylvania.
1898: Atlantic City, New Jersey opens its Steel Pier.

June 16, 2016

Tom Cady rules over Dyea, Alaska

"Troublesome Tom" P. Cady
Denver Post, March 3, 1902
(Click image to enlarge)

roublesome Tom Cady

    Years ago, while researching for Alias Soapy Smith, I came across the name Tom Cady as being Dyea's underworld boss. Previous to the publication of my book some historians gave Cady's name as an indication that Soapy probably had no control in Dyea. None of these historians had connected Cady as a member of the Soap Gang in Colorado, where he was known as "Sure-Shot" and "Troublesome Tom." My book covers quite a bit about Cady, as well as Dyea.
    I came across the following from the Morning Oregonian, May 10, 1898.

A "sure-thing" operator named Keady is held at Dyea on a charge of stealing about $2000 worth of silk and other merchandise while it was in transit to the summit. The marshal is very reticent about the robbery, and it is suspected that other and more reputable persons than Keady are implicated in it.

    The fact that the marshal was said to be "very reticent about the robbery" indicates that he was probably under the pay of the bunco men.

U.S. Marshal's office
Dyea, Alaska
Note sign regarding telephone service between Skaway and Dyea.
(Click image to enlarge)

    Tom Cady, sometimes spelled "Kady" or "Keady," was known in Colorado as “Sure-Shot” and “Troublesome Tom.” As a member of the Soap Gang he operated shell games for Soapy. He was known for his nasty temper and habit of carrying a 12-inch dirk. He followed Soapy to Creede, Colorado in 1892 and then back to Denver after that town's silver rush faded. Accompanied Soapy to Mexico in the 1894 in effort to recruit a private army for the President of Mexico. Cady became a prime suspect with Soapy in the 1892 shooting death of gambler Cliff Sparks. He followed Soapy to Alaska and became Dyea’s underworld boss. It is not known when Cady left Alaska, but it surely happened soon after Soapy was killed in July 1898.
  • January 12, 1899: Cady did return to Denver, where he was arrested, along with others in a theft case. 
  • June 9, 1899: Cady is mentioned in Denver newspapers regarding his wager on the Fitzsimmons-Jeffries boxing bout.
  • December 19, 1901: In a Dallas, Texas theft case a "Tom Cady" pleaded guilty. He spent five-days in jail and a $10 fine.
  • February 18, 1902: A comical article published in the Denver Post indicates that Cady plans to return to Denver, using Wolfe Londoner, Denver's old mayor.
  • March 3, 1902: The Denver Post announces Cady's death in San Francisco, California on February 26, 1902. Because it is linked to the same joke from February 18th, this may be a false death report, common among the bunco men running from the law.

Tom Cady (link 1) (link 2)

Tom Cady: pages 79, 210-11, 229, 251-52, 253-57, 260, 264, 362, 450.

I had seen a carpenter pause at Tom’s three-legged stool that day, watch the game for a moment, then slowly slide his tool bag from his shoulder to the ground, put $5 on the table and pounce upon one of the shells. He lost this five and two more, called the shell man a thief and demanded his money back.
     "Yes," said the man, with his cold eyes fixed upon the top of the mountain. "I presume that’s what you wanted with my money—to give it back."
San Francisco Call, 09/04/1898.


1858: In a speech in Springfield, Illinois, Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln stated that the slavery issue had to be resolved. He declared, "A house divided against itself cannot stand."
1867: Indians and the 3rd Cavalry do battle in the Gallinas Mountains, New Mexico Territory.
1868: Four members of the 1st Cavalry are killed by Indians while on mail escort in Toddy Mountains, Arizona Territory.
1880: Jim Tyler and Matthew Gray are indicted in Tyler, Texas for their involvement in the Sam Bass gang and the Eagle Ford train robbery of April 4, 1878. Tyler is not captured until July 21, 1881.
1890: The second Madison Square Gardens opens.
1881: John E. Wilcoxon, more commonly known as “Jim Moon,” is shot and killed by gambler, bunco man, Clay Wilson, in the Denver, Colorado Arcade Cafe, saloon, and gaming house.
1897: The U.S. government signs a treaty of annexation with Hawaii.
1898: The first issue of the Klondike Nugget is published in Dawson, Yukon.
1903: The Ford Motor Company is incorporated.
1906: An act of congress is signed by Theodore Roosevelt, which combines Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory into a single state, called Oklahoma.

June 15, 2016

Soapy Smith and the proposed Corbett-Mitchell boxing bout of 1893.

Mitchell and Corbett fight
January 26, 1894
Courtesy Heritage Auctions
(Click image to enlarge)

he most talked-about proposed prize boxing contest of 1893 was the anticipated bout between James "Gentleman Jim" Corbett and English champion James Mitchell. It would be Corbett’s first defense of the heavyweight boxing title since his defeat of John L. Sullivan the previous year.
    Mitchell was widely acknowledged as the best barroom fighter in the world, but despite several attempts he could not entice Corbett to a brawl outside of the regulated boxing ring. The famed fisticuffs match was originally set to take place in December 1893 at the Columbia Athletic Club in Roby, Indiana with a $45,000 purse. Governor Matthews of Indiana had warned the planners that he planned to have them all arrested if they continued with their plans for the slugfest, and that if necessary he would "call out the state militia" to stop the fight. In a boxing contest scheduled at the Club on September 4, 1893, the Chicago Tribune reported (September 6, 1893) that Matthews sent 700 soldiers to surround Roby arena and point a Gatling gun at its front door. In order to assure a peaceful outcome to the situation, the athletic club's president, Dominic O'Malley, agreed to postpone the fight scheduled that week. No fight was ever fought in the club again. By November the Columbia Athletic Club was dissolved and the Roby arena abandoned.
    The Jacksonville Club of Jacksonville, Florida was the next proposed location for the fight. Soapy Smith, Bat Masterson and other major sports of Denver offered up a higher purse of $25,000 if the the prizefighting managers would choose Denver, Colorado as the location for the fistic-exchange. This is just one of several times Soapy worked behind the scenes and just behind the ropes of the sport of boxing. The offer was published in the St. Paul Daily News on November 13, 1893, as follows.

Denver Wants It.

DENVER, Col., Nov. 13—A company of enthusiastic sports have a project started to get Corbett and Mitchell to settle their contest in this city [Denver] for a purse of $25,000.

Among the leaders in the scheme are Bat Masterson, Reddy Gallagher [Denver boxer and occasional tough for the Soap Gang], Bob Austin [Arcade saloon] and “Soapy” Smith. Chief of Police Kellogg was appealed to to allow the fight to take place here, but he refused to commit himself. The police board will be visited to-day to find out what position the will take.

    Although the purse amount was heftier, anything above an "exhibition" about boxing was illegal in Colorado, and it appears that Soapy, Bat and the others were not successful in getting the police board to allow the fight. 
    The gloved fight took place at the Duval Athletic Club in Jacksonville, Florida on January 26, 1894. Jim Corbett won with a knock-out in the 3rd round.

Sources and additional information:
1. Kansas City Stories
2. Box Rec
3. Chicago Tribune

Soapy Smith's Scheme: The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight

Soapy's involvement in boxing: pages 97, 194, 275, 406.

"He pretended righteousness as he leveraged to his advantage the greed of his fellow man, who himself awaited the opportunity to cheat him."
Alias Soapy Smith


1607: Colonists in North America complete James Fort in Jamestown.
1775: George Washington is appointed head of the Continental Army by the Second Continental Congress.
1836: Arkansas is admitted into the Union as the 25th state.
1844: Charles Goodyear is granted a patent for the process that strengthens rubber.
1846: Great Britain and the U.S. agree on joint occupation of the Oregon Territory.
1864: An order to establish a military burial ground becomes Arlington National Cemetery.
1867: Indians and the 3rd Infantry battle at Big Timbers, Kansas.
1877: Four civilians are killed by Nez Perce Indians at John Day's Creek, Idaho Territory.
1877: Henry O. Flipper becomes the first African American to graduate from the Military Academy at West Point.
1878: A military escort takes Jesse Evans from Lincoln to Mesilla, New Mexico Territory to stand trial for the murder of John Tunstall.
1881: The James-Younger gang robs the Chicago and Rock Island train of $1,000 in Winston, Missouri.
1883: The first eastbound Northern Pacific train arrives in Helena, Montana Territory.
1898: The House of Representatives approves annexation of Hawaii.
1898: The White Pass and Yukon Railway begins laying track rail in Skagway, Alaska.